Medicare Coverage for Immunotherapy Cancer Treatment

Immunotherapy is covered under Medicare as a cancer treatment. It is a biological therapy that uses materials from living organisms to address the cancer. Immunotherapy drugs, such as Keytruda and Opdivo, are typically covered under Medicare if the medications are deemed medically necessary. Additional out-of-pocket costs for immunotherapy cancer treatment vary from plan to plan.

Terry Turner, writer and researcher for RetireGuide
  • Written by
    Terry Turner

    Terry Turner

    Senior Financial Writer and Financial Wellness Facilitator

    Terry Turner has more than 35 years of journalism experience, including covering benefits, spending and congressional action on federal programs such as Social Security and Medicare. He is a Certified Financial Wellness Facilitator through the National Wellness Institute and the Foundation for Financial Wellness and a member of the Association for Financial Counseling & Planning Education (AFCPE®).

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    Lee Williams
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    Lee Williams

    Senior Financial Editor

    Lee Williams is a professional writer, editor and content strategist with 10 years of professional experience working for global and nationally recognized brands. He has contributed to Forbes, The Huffington Post, SUCCESS Magazine,, Electric Literature and The Wall Street Journal. His career also includes ghostwriting for Fortune 500 CEOs and published authors.

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    Christian Worstell
    Christian Worstell, Medicare expert

    Christian Worstell

    Medicare Expert

    Christian Worstell is a licensed health insurance agent and an established writer in the sector, with articles featured in Forbes, MarketWatch, WebMD and more. His work has positively impacted beneficiaries nationwide and empowers them to make strong health care decisions.

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  • Published: May 14, 2021
  • Updated: October 23, 2023
  • 7 min read time
  • This page features 10 Cited Research Articles
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APA Turner, T. (2023, October 23). Medicare Coverage for Immunotherapy Cancer Treatment. Retrieved May 20, 2024, from

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Chicago Turner, Terry. "Medicare Coverage for Immunotherapy Cancer Treatment." Last modified October 23, 2023.

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Immunotherapy Coverage at a Glance
Medicare PlanImmunotherapy Coverage
Part A (Inpatient) Most immunotherapy treatments covered if ordered as part of an inpatient hospital stay. You are responsible for coinsurance costs for stays beyond 60 days.
Part B (Outpatient)Covers 80% of the cost of most outpatient immunotherapy treatments after you have reached your Part B deductible.
Part C (Medicare Advantage)Covers everything covered by Medicare Part A and Part B. Select plans may provide additional benefits.
Part D (Prescription Drugs)Covers select immunotherapy drugs. Coverage and formulary varies by plan.
Supplemental InsuranceCan help cover out-of-pocket costs of immunotherapy treatment. Coverage varies by plan.

Does Medicare Cover Cancer Immunotherapy?

Medicare covers certain types of immunotherapy to treat cancer. Immunotherapy uses medications made from living organisms to help your immune system fight cancer.

Types of Immunotherapy Medicare Covers
Cancer vaccines
Used for preventing cancer as well as treating it, these vaccines help your immune system recognize cancer cells and defend against the condition.
Monoclonal antibodies
These are synthetic, laboratory-produced antibodies that boost your own antibodies that would normally fight cancer cells.
Oncolytic virus therapy
This treatment uses a genetically-modified virus that can hunt down and destroy cancer cells.
T-cell therapy
This therapy relies on T-cells – a type of immune system cell – to find and destroy cancer cells. T-cell therapy is typically used to treat blood cancers.

Each part of Medicare — Part A hospital insurance, Part B medical insurance and Part D prescription drug plans — will cover different aspects of immunotherapy.

Medicare Advantage plans (Medicare Part C) are required by law to cover everything Medicare Part A and Part B cover but may include additional benefits depending on your particular plan.

Immunotherapy: What Each Part of Medicare Covers
Medicare Part A hospital insurance
Medicare Part A covers hospital stays related to immunotherapy treatments. You have to be admitted as a hospital inpatient before Part A coverage applies. Medicare Part A also covers costs for limited stays in skilled nursing facilities.
Medicare Part B medical insurance
Medicare Part B covers immunotherapy if you receive outpatient treatment in a doctor’s office or a freestanding clinic.
Medicare Advantage (Medicare Part C) plans
These plans are sold by private insurance companies and are required by law to cover everything Original Medicare — Medicare Part A and Part B — covers. These plans may also help pay for prescription drugs not covered by Original Medicare as well as other benefits. But you may be required to use doctors, hospitals and other health care providers that are in your plan’s network to avoid having to pay more out of pocket.
Medicare Part D prescription drug plans
Medicare Part D plans are sold by private insurers and can help you save money on drugs you are prescribed to take at home without the assistance of a health care professional. Your coverage amount depends on your plan and the plan’s formulary — a list of drugs your plan covers. Check with your plan administrator to get a better idea of the cost of medications used for your treatment.
Medigap (Medicare Supplement insurance)
Medigap helps cover the cost of deductibles, coinsurance and copayments you have to pay out of your own pocket when you are enrolled in Original Medicare. Medigap policies are sold by private companies. You cannot buy a Medigap policy if you are enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan.

In addition to providing coverage for immunotherapy, Medicare covers radiation therapy and chemotherapy used to treat cancer.

Does Medicare Cover CAR-T Cell Immunotherapy?

The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services announced in 2019 that it would cover CAR-T cell (chimeric antigen receptor T cell) immunotherapy in certain cases.

This type of immunotherapy is highly personalized, using your own T cells to find and kill cancer cells. It’s also very expensive. As of 2019, a one-time treatment of CAR-T cell therapy was estimated to cost as much as $475,000, or up to $1.5 million if you include tests and hospitalization.

Medicare will only cover CAR-T cell therapy if you receive it in a hospital or other health care facility that is enrolled in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) drug safety program.

The treatment also must meet other specific FDA requirements in order to be covered by Medicare Part B medical insurance.

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Your Costs for Immunotherapy With Medicare

You will still have to pay certain out-of-pocket costs for immunotherapy cancer treatment even if you are covered by Medicare.

Your Medicare Part B deductible ($240 in 2024) applies. After meeting your deductible, you will also have to pay 20% of the Medicare-approved cost of your immunotherapy treatments.

Your Medicare Part A deductible ($1,632 in 2024 for each benefit period) will most likely be met if you complete all your necessary doctor visits and immunotherapy treatment sessions.

A Medigap policy may help cover some of your out-of-pocket costs if you have Original Medicare — Medicare Part A and Part B. Medigap plans are sold by private insurers. Check with your plan’s administrator to find out exactly what costs you may still be responsible for paying.

Medicare Advantage plans are also sold by private insurers. They are required by law to cover everything Original Medicare covers. Medicare Advantage plans also have a maximum out-of-pocket limit that may save you money.

Check with your Medicare Advantage plan administrator to find out the specific benefits your plan offers and to see if your plan provides additional benefits above what Original Medicare will cover.

Does Medicare Cover Keytruda or Opdivo for Cancer Treatment?

Medicare will typically cover Keytruda (pembrolizumab) or Opdivo (nivolumab) for cancer immunotherapy treatment if the medications are deemed medically necessary. Medicare may require that your doctor confirm the necessity of the treatment.

If your doctor prescribes a higher dose than the FDA recommends, Medicare may decline coverage of these treatments.

Did You Know?
Immunotherapy treatment with Opdivo cost Medicare an average of $51,000 per patient in 2017. The cost of Keytruda averaged $48,000 per patient, according to the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission.
Source: MedPAC

Both medications are expensive, and you will still be responsible for your Medicare Part B deductible plus 20% of the Medicare-approved costs for the drugs.

Your Costs for Keytruda

If you have Original Medicare and no Medigap coverage, your out-of-pocket costs after you reach your deductible could range from $1,000 to $1,950 for each Keytruda infusion, according to Merck & Co., the manufacturer of Keytruda.

A Medigap policy or Medicare Advantage plan may substantially reduce your out-of-pocket costs according to Merck. The company claims 41% of patients with Medicare Advantage plans had no out-of-pocket expenses for an infusion.

Since coverage for Medigap and Medicare Advantage plans vary depending on your plan and where you live, you should check with your plan administrator to determine exactly what your financial responsibility will be for Keytruda infusions.

Your Costs for Opdivo

Depending on the type and amount of Medicare coverage you have, you can expect to spend anywhere from zero dollars to as much as $2,670 per Opdivo infusion, according to Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the manufacturer of Opdivo.

Bristol-Myers claims that more than 60% of patients paid $25 or less for each infusion in 2019.

Medigap and Medicare Advantage plans can greatly reduce your out-of-pocket costs. Check with your plan administrator about what your responsibility will be for your plan.

Using Medicare for Immunotherapy FAQs

Will Medicare cover immunotherapy treatment in another state?
Original Medicare will cover immunotherapy in another state so long as the provider accepts Medicare. Many Medicare Advantage plans rely on networks of healthcare providers. Going out of state for treatment may take you out of your plan’s network. You should check with your plan administrator to make sure you are not going out of network. Your out-of-pocket Medicare costs and coverage may also differ based on your plan.
How long does Medicare cover immunotherapy?
Medicare will cover immunotherapy as long as it is medically necessary. Patients may be treated with immunotherapy for up to two years but should stop it if the disease advances or they experience excessive toxicity from the drugs. After 60 days of inpatient treatment, you will be subject to coinsurance costs under Medicare Part A. You will also have out-of-pocket costs for other parts of Medicare.
What is the average cost of immunotherapy?
Cancer immunotherapy can cost more than $200,000 a year — with half of that the cost of drugs alone. Medicare will cover some of the costs, but you will have out-of-pocket costs under Original Medicare, Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D prescription drug plans.
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Last Modified: October 23, 2023

10 Cited Research Articles

  1. U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2022, September 27). 2023 Medicare Parts A & B Premiums and Deductibles 2023 Medicare Part D Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amounts. Retrieved from
  2. U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2022). Costs. Retrieved from
  3. Nall, R. (2020, October 29). What to Know About Medicare and Keytruda. Retrieved from
  4. Averett, N. (2019, December 23). Medicare to Cover CAR-T Cell Therapy. Retrieved from
  5. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. (n.d.). Opdivo: Pricing Information. Retrieved from
  6. U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2019, November). Medicare Coverage of Cancer Treatment Services. Retrieved from
  7. National Cancer Institute. (2019, September 24). Immunotherapy to Treat Cancer. Retrieved from
  8. U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2019, August 7). Decision Memo for Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy for Cancers (CAG-00451N). Retrieved from
  9. MedPAC. (2019, April 30). Payment Policy for Prescription Drugs Under Medicare Part B and Part D. Retrieved from
  10. Merck Oncology. (n.d.). Keytruda: Cost Info & Financial Help. Retrieved from